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SCI.CC. Crosscutting Concepts (CC)
SCI.CC1. Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and patterns to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.CC1.m. Students recognize macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of microscopic and atomic-level structure. They identify patterns in rates of change and other numerical relationships that provide information about natural and human-designed systems. The
SCI.CC2. Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and cause and effect relationships to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Cause and Effect
SCI.CC2.m. Students classify relationships as causal or correlational, and recognize correlation does not necessarily imply causation. They use cause and effect relationships to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. They also understand that phenomena ma
SCI.CC3. Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of scale, proportion and quantity to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
SCI.CC3.m. Students observe time, space, and energy phenomena at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small. They understand phenomena observed at one scale may not be observable at another scale, and the function of natural and des
SCI.CC4. Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of systems and models to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Systems and System Models
SCI.CC4.m. Students understand systems may interact with other systems: they may have sub-systems and be a part of larger complex systems. They use models to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes, and outputs—and energy, matter, and info
SCI.CC5. Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of energy and matter to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Energy and Matter
SCI.CC5.m. Students understand matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes. They also understand that within a natural or designed system the transfer of energy drives the motion and cycling of matter. Energy may take different
SCI.CC6. Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of structure and function to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Structure and Function
SCI.CC6.m. Students model complex and microscopic structures and systems and visualize how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among their parts. They analyze many complex natural and designed structures and systems to determine how
SCI.CC7. Students use science and engineering practices, disciplinary core ideas, and an understanding of stability and change to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
Stability and Change
SCI.CC7.m. Students explain stability and change in natural or designed systems by examining changes over time, and considering forces at different scales, including the atomic scale. They understand changes in one part of a system might cause large changes in anoth
SCI.ESS2.C. The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
SCI.ESS2.C.m. Water cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere, and is propelled by sunlight and gravity. Density variations of sea water drive interconnected ocean currents. Water movement causes weathering and erosion, changing landscape features.
SCI.ESS3. Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of the Earth and human activity to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.ESS3.A. Natural Resources
SCI.ESS3.A.m. Humans depend on Earth’s land, oceans, fresh water, atmosphere, and biosphere for different resources, many of which are limited or not renewable. Resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past geologic processes.
SCI.ESS3.C.m. Human activities have altered the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere which in turn has altered the biosphere. Changes to the biosphere can have different impacts for different living things. Activities and technologies can be engineered to reduce pe
SCI.ESS3.D.m. Evidence suggests human activities affect global warming. Decisions to reduce the impact of global warming depend on understanding climate science, engineering capabilities, and social dynamics.
SCI.ETS. Disciplinary Core Idea: Engineering, Technology, and the Application of Science (ETS)
SCI.ETS2. Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of the links among Engineering, Technology, Science, and Society to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.ETS2.A. Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology
SCI.ETS2.A.m.1. Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems.
SCI.ETS2.B.m.2. The uses of technologies are driven by people’s needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.
SCI.ETS3.B. Science and Engineering Are Unique Ways of Thinking with Different Purposes
SCI.ETS3.B.m.1. Science asks questions to understand the natural world and assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. Science carefully considers and evaluates anomalies in
SCI.ETS3.B.m.3. Science and engineering have direct impacts on the quality of life for all people. Therefore, scientists and engineers need to pursue their work in an ethical manner that requires honesty, fairness and dedication to public health, safety and welfare.
SCI.ETS3.C. Science and Engineering Use Multiple Approaches to Create New Knowledge and Solve Problems
SCI.ETS3.C.m.1. A theory is an explanation of some aspect of the natural world. Scientists develop theories by using multiple approaches. Validity of these theories and explanations is increased through a peer review process that tests and evaluates the evidence supporti
SCI.ETS3.C.m.2. Theories are explanations for observable phenomena based on a body of evidence developed over time. A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested to evaluate a theory. Scientific laws describe cause and effect relationships among observable phenomena.
SCI.LS1. Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of structures and processes (on a scale from molecules to organisms) to make sense of phenomena and solve problem.
SCI.LS1.A. Structure and Function
SCI.LS1.A.m. All living things are made up of cells. In organisms, cells work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions.
SCI.LS1.C. Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
SCI.LS1.C.m. Plants use the energy from light to make sugars through photosynthesis. Within individual organisms, food is broken down through a series of chemical reactions that rearrange molecules and release energy.
SCI.LS1.D.m. Each sense receptor responds to different inputs, transmitting them as signals that travel along nerve cells to the brain. The signals are then processed in the brain resulting in immediate behavior or memories.
SCI.LS2. Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of the interactions, energy, and dynamics within ecosystems to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.LS2.A. Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
SCI.LS2.A.m. Organisms and populations are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors, any of which can limit their growth. Competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems
SCI.LS2.B. Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
SCI.LS2.B.m. The atoms that make up the organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem. Food webs model how matter and energy are transferred among producers, consumers, and decomposers as the three groups inter
SCI.LS2.D.m. Changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on – for example, water purification and recycling.
SCI.LS3.B.m. In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired by the offspring resulting in variation between parent and offspring. Genetic information can be altered because of mutations, which may result in beneficial, negative, or no chang
SCI.LS4. Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of biological evolution to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.LS4.A. Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity
SCI.LS4.A.m. The fossil record documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms and their environments through Earth’s history. The fossil record and comparisons of anatomical similarities between organisms enables the inference of lines o
SCI.LS4.B.m. Both natural and artificial selection result from certain traits giving some individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing, leading to predominance of certain traits in a population.
SCI.LS4.C.m. Species can change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions through adaptation by natural selection acting over generations. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common.
SCI.LS4.D. Biodiversity and Humans
SCI.LS4.D.m. Changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources and ecosystem services they rely on.
SCI.PS1. Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of matter and its interactions to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.PS1.A. Structures and Properties of Matter
SCI.PS1.A.m. The fact that matter is composed of atoms and molecules can be used to explain the properties of substances, diversity of materials, states of matter, phase changes, and conservation of matter.
SCI.PS2.A.m.3. For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law).
SCI.PS3.B. Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
SCI.PS3.B.m. Energy changes to and from each type can be tracked through physical or chemical interactions. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter.
SCI.PS3.D. Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
SCI.PS3.D.m. Sunlight is captured by plants and used in a chemical reaction to produce sugar molecules for storing this energy. This stored energy can be released by respiration or combustion, which can be reversed by burning those molecules to release energy.
SCI.PS4. Students use science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and an understanding of waves and their applications in technologies for information transfer to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.PS4.A. Wave Properties
SCI.PS4.A.m. A simple wave model has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude, and mechanical waves need a medium through which they are transmitted. This model can explain many phenomena including sound and light. Waves can transmit en
SCI.SEP2.A.m.7. Develop and use a model to generate data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales.
SCI.SEP3. Students plan and carry out investigations, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP3.A. Planning and Conducting Investigations – Students plan and carry out investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or solutions. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP3.A.m.2. Conduct an investigation. Evaluate and revise the experimental design to produce data that serve as the basis for evidence to meet the goals of the investigation.
SCI.SEP4. Students analyze and interpret data, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP4.A. Analyze and Interpret Data – Students extend quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP4.A.m.1. Construct, analyze, or interpret graphical displays of data and large data sets to identify linear and nonlinear relationships.
SCI.SEP6. Students construct explanations and design solutions, in conjunction with using crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas, to make sense of phenomena and solve problems.
SCI.SEP6.A. Construct an Explanation – Students construct explanations supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories. This includes the following:
SCI.SEP6.A.m.1. Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict and describe phenomena.
SCI.SEP6.A.m.3. Construct a scientific explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from sources, including the students’ own experiments. Solutions should build on the following assumption: theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as