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Earth in the Universe 4.E.1. Explain the causes of day and night and phases of the moon. 4.E.1.1. Explain the cause of day and night based on the rotation of Earth on its axis.
4.E.1.2. Explain the monthly changes in the appearance of the moon, based on the moon's orbit around the Earth.
Earth History 4.E.2. Understand the use of fossils and changes in the surface of the earth as evidence of the history of Earth and its changing life forms. 4.E.2.1. Compare fossils (including molds, casts, and preserved parts of plants and animals) to one another and to living organisms.
4.E.2.3. Give examples of how the surface of the earth changes due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.
Ecosystems 4.L.1. Understand the effects of environmental changes, adaptations and behaviors that enable animals (including humans) to survive in changing habitats. 4.L.1.1. Give examples of changes in an organism's environment that are beneficial to it and some that are harmful.
4.L.1.2. Explain how animals meet their needs by using behaviors in response to information received from the environment.
Molecular Biology 4.L.2. Understand food and the benefits of vitamins, minerals and exercise. 4.L.2.1. Classify substances as food or non-food items based on their ability to provide energy and materials for survival, growth and repair of the body.
Forces and Motion 4.P.1. Explain how various forces affect the motion of an object. 4.P.1.1. Explain how magnets interact with all things made of iron and with other magnets to produce motion without touching them.
4.P.1.2. Explain how electrically charged objects push or pull on other electrically charged objects and produce motion.
Matter, Properties and Change 4.P.2. Understand the composition and properties of matter before and after they undergo a change or interaction. 4.P.2.1. Compare the physical properties of samples of matter: (strength, hardness, flexibility, ability to conduct heat, ability to conduct electricity, ability to be attracted by magnets, reactions to water and fire).
4.P.2.2. Explain how minerals are identified using tests for the physical properties of hardness, color, luster, cleavage and streak.
4.P.2.3. Classify rocks as metamorphic, sedimentary or igneous based on their composition, how they are formed and the processes that create them.
Energy: Conservation and Transfer 4.P.3. Recognize that energy takes various forms that may be grouped based on their interaction with matter. 4.P.3.1. Recognize the basic forms of energy (light, sound, heat, electrical, and magnetic) as the ability to cause motion or create change. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Energy
4.P.3.2. Recognize that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels from one medium to another, and that light can be reflected, refracted, and absorbed.