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NGSS.HS-ESS.EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE
HS-ESS1. Earth’s Place in the Universe - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS1-1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation.
HS-ESS1-2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe.
HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system.
HS-ESS1-5. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Fossils Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Fossils
HS-ESS1-6. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history.
HS-ESS1.CC. Crosscutting Concepts HS-ESS1.CC.3. Energy and Matter HS-ESS1.CC.3.2. In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved. (HS-ESS1-3)
HS-ESS1.CNS. Connections to Nature of Science HS-ESS1.CNS.2. Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems HS-ESS1.CNS.2.1. Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-ESS1-2) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Fossils Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Fossils
HS-ESS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars ESS1.A:1. The star called the sun is changing and will burn out over a lifespan of approximately 10 billion years. (HS-ESS1-1)
ESS1.A:3. The Big Bang theory is supported by observations of distant galaxies receding from our own, of the measured composition of stars and non-stellar gases, and of the maps of spectra of the primordial radiation (cosmic microwave background) that still fills the universe. (HS-ESS1-2)
ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System ESS1.B:1. Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the sun. Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system. (HS-ESS1-4)
ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth ESS1.C:2. Although active geologic processes, such as plate tectonics and erosion, have destroyed or altered most of the very early rock record on Earth, other objects in the solar system, such as lunar rocks, asteroids, and meteorites, have changed little over billions of years. Studying these objects can provide information about Earth’s formation and early history. (HS-ESS1-6)
ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions ESS2.B:1. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic history. (ESS2.B Grade 8 GBE) (secondary to HS-ESS1-5)
PS1.C: Nuclear Processes PS1.C:1. Spontaneous radioactive decays follow a characteristic exponential decay law. Nuclear lifetimes allow radiometric dating to be used to determine the ages of rocks and other materials. (secondary to HS-ESS1-5), (secondary to HS-ESS1-6) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Fossils Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Fossils
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life PS3.D:1. Nuclear Fusion processes in the center of the sun release the energy that ultimately reaches Earth as radiation. (secondary to HS-ESS1-1)
HS-ESS2. Earth’s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS2-1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features.
HS-ESS2-2. Analyze geoscience data to make the claim that one change to Earth’s surface can create feedbacks that cause changes to other Earth’s systems. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Rocks Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Rocks
HS-ESS2-3. Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection.
HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Climate
HS-ESS2-5. Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes.
HS-ESS2-7. Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth.
HS-ESS2.CC. Crosscutting Concepts HS-ESS2.CC.2. Energy and Matter HS-ESS2.CC.2.2. Energy drives the cycling of matter within and between systems. (HS-ESS2-3)
HS-ESS2.CNS. Connections to Nature of Science HS-ESS2.CNS.1. Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence HS-ESS2.CNS.1.1. Science knowledge is based on empirical evidence. (HS-ESS2-3)
HS-ESS2.CNS.1.2. Science disciplines share common rules of evidence used to evaluate explanations about natural systems. (HS-ESS2-3)
HS-ESS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System ESS1.B:1. Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun, together with changes in the tilt of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on the earth. These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and other gradual climate changes. (secondary to HS-ESS2-4)
ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems ESS2.A:2. Evidence from deep probes and seismic waves, reconstructions of historical changes in Earth’s surface and its magnetic field, and an understanding of physical and chemical processes lead to a model of Earth with a hot but solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid mantle and crust. Motions of the mantle and its plates occur primarily through thermal convection, which involves the cycling of matter due to the outward flow of energy from Earth’s interior and gravitational movement of denser materials toward the interior. (HS-ESS2-3)
ESS2.A:3. The geological record shows that changes to global and regional climate can be caused by interactions among changes in the sun’s energy output or Earth’s orbit, tectonic events, ocean circulation, volcanic activity, glaciers, vegetation, and human activities. These changes can occur on a variety of time scales from sudden (e.g., volcanic ash clouds) to intermediate (ice ages) to very long-term tectonic cycles. (HS-ESS2-4)
ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions ESS2.B:1. The radioactive decay of unstable isotopes continually generates new energy within Earth’s crust and mantle, providing the primary source of the heat that drives mantle convection. Plate tectonics can be viewed as the surface expression of mantle convection. (HS-ESS2-3)
ESS2.B:2. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic history. Plate movements are responsible for most continental and ocean-floor features and for the distribution of most rocks and minerals within Earth’s crust. (ESS2.B Grade 8 GBE) (HS-ESS2-1)
ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes ESS2.C:1. The abundance of liquid water on Earth’s surface and its unique combination of physical and chemical properties are central to the planet’s dynamics. These properties include water’s exceptional capacity to absorb, store, and release large amounts of energy, transmit sunlight, expand upon freezing, dissolve and transport materials, and lower the viscosities and melting points of rocks. (HS-ESS2-5)
ESS2.D: Weather and Climate ESS2.D:1. The foundation for Earth’s global climate systems is the electromagnetic radiation from the sun, as well as its reflection, absorption, storage, and redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and land systems, and this energy’s re-radiation into space. (HS-ESS2-4) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Climate
ESS2.D:3. Changes in the atmosphere due to human activity have increased carbon dioxide concentrations and thus affect climate. (HS-ESS2-6), (HS-ESS2-4) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate
ESS2.E: Biogeology ESS2.E:1. The many dynamic and delicate feedbacks between the biosphere and other Earth systems cause a continual co-evolution of Earth’s surface and the life that exists on it. (HS-ESS2-7)
PS4.A: Wave Properties PS4.A:1. Geologists use seismic waves and their reflection at interfaces between layers to probe structures deep in the planet. (secondary to HS-ESS2-3) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Earthquakes
HS-ESS3. Earth and Human Activity - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-ESS3-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Earthquakes
HS-ESS3-2. Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on cost-benefit ratios.* Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Minerals Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Minerals
HS-ESS3-5. Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Climate
HS-ESS3-6. Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity. Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
HS-ESS3.CC. Crosscutting Concepts HS-ESS3.CC.3. Stability and Change HS-ESS3.CC.3.2. Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system. (HS-ESS3-4)
HS-ESS3.CNS. Connections to Nature of Science HS-ESS3.CNS.1. Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods HS-ESS3.CNS.1.1. Science investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data. (HS-ESS3-5)
HS-ESS3.CNS.2. Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence HS-ESS3.CNS.2.1. Science knowledge is based on empirical evidence. (HS-ESS3-5)
HS-ESS3.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas ESS2.D: Weather and Climate ESS2.D:1. Current models predict that, although future regional climate changes will be complex and varied, average global temperatures will continue to rise. The outcomes predicted by global climate models strongly depend on the amounts of human-generated greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere each year and by the ways in which these gases are absorbed by the ocean and biosphere. (secondary to HS-ESS3-6) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Climate Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Climate
ESS3.A: Natural Resources ESS3.A:1. Resource availability has guided the development of human society. (HS-ESS3-1)
ESS3.A:2. All forms of energy production and other resource extraction have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs and risks as well as benefits. New technologies and social regulations can change the balance of these factors. (HS-ESS3-2) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
ESS3.B: Natural Hazards ESS3.B:1. Natural hazards and other geologic events have shaped the course of human history; [they] have significantly altered the sizes of human populations and have driven human migrations. (HS-ESS3-1) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game & Study Guide Volcanoes
ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems ESS3.C:2. Scientists and engineers can make major contributions by developing technologies that produce less pollution and waste and that preclude ecosystem degradation. (HS-ESS3-4)
ESS3.D: Global Climate Change ESS3.D:2. Through computer simulations and other studies, important discoveries are still being made about how the ocean, the atmosphere, and the biosphere interact and are modified in response to human activities. (HS-ESS3-6) Quiz, Flash Cards, Worksheet, Game Oceans
HS-ESS3.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices HS-ESS3.SEP.1. Analyzing and Interpreting Data - Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data. HS-ESS3.SEP.1.1. Analyze data using computational models in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims. (HS-ESS3-5)
HS-LS1. From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.
HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
HS-LS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
HS-LS1-4. Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.
HS-LS1-5. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.
HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
HS-LS1-7. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
HS-LS1.CC. Crosscutting Concepts HS-LS1.CC.2. Energy and Matter HS-LS1.CC.2.1. Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system. (HS-LS1-5), (HS-LS1-6)
HS-LS1.CC.3. Structure and Function HS-LS1.CC.3.1. Investigating or designing new systems or structures requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components, and connections of components to reveal its function and/or solve a problem. (HS-LS1-1)
HS-LS1.CC.4. Stability and Change HS-LS1.CC.4.1. Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system. (HS-LS1-3)
HS-LS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas LS1.A: Structure and Function LS1.A:1. Systems of specialized cells within organisms help them perform the essential functions of life. (HS-LS1-1)
LS1.A:2. All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells. (HS-LS1-1) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS3-1.)
LS1.A:3. Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)
LS1.A:4. Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)
LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms LS1.B:1. In multicellular organisms individual cells grow and then divide via a process called mitosis, thereby allowing the organism to grow. The organism begins as a single cell (fertilized egg) that divides successively to produce many cells, with each parent cell passing identical genetic material (two variants of each chromosome pair) to both daughter cells. Cellular division and differentiation produce and maintain a complex organism, composed of systems of tissues and organs that work together to meet the needs of the whole organism. (HS-LS1-4)
LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms LS1.C:1. The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by converting carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen. (HS-LS1-5)
LS1.C:2. The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells. (HS-LS1-6)
LS1.C:3. As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels of living systems, chemical elements are recombined in different ways to form different products. (HS-LS1-6), (HS-LS1-7)
LS1.C:4. As a result of these chemical reactions, energy is transferred from one system of interacting molecules to another and release energy to the surrounding environment and to maintain body temperature. Cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and new compounds are formed that can transport energy to muscles. (HS-LS1-7)
HS-LS2. Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-LS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales.
HS-LS2-3. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
HS-LS2-4. Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.
HS-LS2-5. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.
HS-LS2-6. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.
HS-LS2-7. Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.*
HS-LS2.CC. Crosscutting Concepts HS-LS2.CC.4. Energy and Matter HS-LS2.CC.4.2. Energy drives the cycling of matter within and between systems. (HS-LS2-3)
HS-LS2.CC.5. Stability and Change HS-LS2.CC.5.1. Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable. (HS-LS2-6), (HS-LS2-7)
HS-LS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems LS2.A:1. Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and populations they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of living and nonliving resources and from such challenges such as predation, competition, and disease. Organisms would have the capacity to produce populations of great size were it not for the fact that environments and resources are finite. This fundamental tension affects the abundance (number of individuals) of species in any given ecosystem. (HS-LS2-1), (HS-LS2-2)
LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems LS2.B:1. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration (including anaerobic processes) provide most of the energy for life processes. (HS-LS2-3)
LS2.B:2. Plants or algae form the lowest level of the food web. At each link upward in a food web, only a small fraction of the matter consumed at the lower level is transferred upward, to produce growth and release energy in cellular respiration at the higher level. Given this inefficiency, there are generally fewer organisms at higher levels of a food web. Some matter reacts to release energy for life functions, some matter is stored in newly made structures, and much is discarded. The chemical elements that make up the molecules of organisms pass through food webs and into and out of the atmosphere and soil, and they are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, matter and energy are conserved. (HS-LS2-4)
LS2.B:3. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. (HS-LS2-5)
LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience LS2.C:1. A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of organisms relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions. If a modest biological or physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to its more or less original status (i.e., the ecosystem is resilient), as opposed to becoming a very different ecosystem. Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population, however, can challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources and habitat availability. (HS-LS2-2), (HS-LS2-6)
LS2.C:2. Moreover, anthropogenic changes (induced by human activity) in the environment—including habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, overexploitation, and climate change—can disrupt an ecosystem and threaten the survival of some species. (HS-LS2-7)
LS2.D: Social Interactions and Group Behavior LS2.D:1. Group behavior has evolved because membership can increase the chances of survival for individuals and their genetic relatives. (HS-LS2-8)
LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans LS4.D:2. Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem functioning and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or inspirational value. (secondary to HS-LS2-7) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS4-6.)
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes PS3.D:1. The main way that solar energy is captured and stored on Earth is through the complex chemical process known as photosynthesis. (secondary to HS-LS2-5)
HS-LS3. Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-LS3-1. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.
HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors.
HS-LS3-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.
HS-LS3.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas LS1.A: Structure and Function LS1.A:1. All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins. (secondary to HS-LS3-1) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS1-1.)
LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits LS3.A:1. Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. The instructions for forming species’ characteristics are carried in DNA. All cells in an organism have the same genetic content, but the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways. Not all DNA codes for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural functions, and some have no as-yet known function. (HS-LS3-1)
LS3.B: Variation of Traits LS3.B:1. In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of meiosis (cell division), thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic variation. Although DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, errors do occur and result in mutations, which are also a source of genetic variation. Environmental factors can also cause mutations in genes, and viable mutations are inherited. (HS-LS3-2)
LS3.B:2. Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability of occurrences of traits in a population. Thus the variation and distribution of traits observed depends on both genetic and environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2), (HS-LS3-3)
HS-LS3.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices HS-LS3.SEP.2. Analyzing and Interpreting Data - Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data. HS-LS3.SEP.2.1. Apply concepts of statistics and probability (including determining function fits to data, slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient for linear fits) to scientific and engineering questions and problems, using digital tools when feasible. (HS-LS3-3)
HS-LS4. Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-LS4-1. Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.
HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.
HS-LS4-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.
HS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations.
HS-LS4-5. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.
HS-LS4-6. Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.*
HS-LS4.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity LS4.A:1. Genetic information, like the fossil record, provides evidence of evolution. DNA sequences vary among species, but there are many overlaps; in fact, the ongoing branching that produces multiple lines of descent can be inferred by comparing the DNA sequences of different organisms. Such information is also derivable from the similarities and differences in amino acid sequences and from anatomical and embryological evidence. (HS-LS4-1)
LS4.B: Natural Selection LS4.B:1. Natural selection occurs only if there is both (1) variation in the genetic information between organisms in a population and (2) variation in the expression of that genetic information—that is, trait variation—that leads to differences in performance among individuals. (HS-LS4-2), (HS-LS4-3)
LS4.B:2. The traits that positively affect survival are more likely to be reproduced, and thus are more common in the population. (HS-LS4-3)
LS4.C: Adaptation LS4.C:1. Evolution is a consequence of the interaction of four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for an environment’s limited supply of the resources that individuals need in order to survive and reproduce, and (4) the ensuing proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in that environment. (HS-LS4-2)
LS4.C:2. Natural selection leads to adaptation, that is, to a population dominated by organisms that are anatomically, behaviorally, and physiologically well suited to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. That is, the differential survival and reproduction of organisms in a population that have an advantageous heritable trait leads to an increase in the proportion of individuals in future generations that have the trait and to a decrease in the proportion of individuals that do not. (HS-LS4-3), (HS-LS4-4)
LS4.C:3. Adaptation also means that the distribution of traits in a population can change when conditions change. (HS-LS4-3)
LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans LS4.D:1. Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem functioning and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or inspirational value. (HS-LS4-6) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS2-7.)
HS-PS1. Matter and Its Interactions - Students who demonstrate understanding can: HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms.
HS-PS1-2. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
HS-PS1-4. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.
HS-PS1-5. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.
HS-PS1-6. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.*
HS-PS1-7. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
HS-PS1.CC. Crosscutting Concepts HS-PS1.CC.1. Patterns HS-PS1.CC.1.1. Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena. (HS-PS1-1), (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS-3), (HS-PS1-5)
HS-PS1.CC.2. Energy and Matter HS-PS1.CC.2.3. Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system. (HS-PS1-4)
HS-PS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter PS1.A:1. Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. (HS-PS1-1)
PS1.A:2. The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states. (HS-PS1-1), (HS-PS1-2)
PS1.A:3. The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms. (HS-PS1-3), (secondary to HS-PS2-6)
PS1.A:4. Stable forms of matter are those in which the electric and magnetic field energy is minimized. A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart. (HS-PS1-4)
PS1.B: Chemical Reactions PS1.B:1. Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules, with consequent changes in the sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules that are matched by changes in kinetic energy. (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-5)
PS1.B:2. In many situations, a dynamic and condition-dependent balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present. (HS-PS1-6)
PS1.B:3. The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of the chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-7)